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Cognitive Psychology C1

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

1. 

In a dialectical progression of ideas, an originally proposed __________ is countered by a(n) __________.
a.
synthesis; thesis
b.
thesis; synthesis
c.
antithesis; thesis
d.
thesis; antithesis
 

2. 

The philosopher who advanced the notion of a dialectic was __________.
a.
Plato
b.
Hegel
c.
Descartes
d.
Aristotle
 

3. 

__________ believed that objects our bodies perceive are transient representations of abstract ideal forms and, therefore, that observations based on these "nonreal" representations are inaccurate.
a.
Plato
b.
Aristotle
c.
Descartes
d.
Locke
 

4. 

An empiricist
a.
is a follower of Plato's rationalist philosophy.
b.
supports the idea of mind-body dualism.
c.
believes that knowledge is acquired through experience and observation.
d.
believes that the mind and the body are separate entities.
 

5. 

The combination of rational with empirical methods so as to get the "best of both worlds" represents, in dialectical terms, a(n)
a.
thesis.
b.
antithesis.
c.
synthesis.
d.
antisynthesis.
 

6. 

A rationalist
a.
is a follower of Aristotle's empiricist philosophy.
b.
supports the idea of monism.
c.
uses logical analysis to understand the world and people's relations to it.
d.
believes that knowledge is acquired through experience and observation.
 

7. 

Plato's theory of forms states that
a.
only objects in the physical world are examples of true reality, whereas abstract ideas of objects do not exist.
b.
both objects in the physical world and abstract ideas of objects are reality.
c.
reality does not reside in objects of the physical world, but in abstract ideas that the objects represent.
d.
there is no way ever to know anything of the nature of reality.
 

8. 

Aristotelians tend to __________ general principles, based on specific instances, whereas Platonists tend to __________ specific instances, based on general principles.
a.
rationalize, empiricize
b.
induce, deduce
c.
empiricize, rationalize
d.
deduce, induce
 

9. 

Plato proposed a theory of
a.
morals.
b.
atoms.
c.
forms.
d.
dyads.
 

10. 

Descartes is known for having been a(n)
a.
functionalist.
b.
behaviorist.
c.
empiricist.
d.
rationalist.
 

11. 

A philosopher who largely rejected acquisition of knowledge by empirical means was
a.
John Locke.
b.
Aristotle.
c.
David Hume.
d.
René Descartes.
 

12. 

__________ refers to Locke's belief that all knowledge is gained empirically, beginning at birth, when our minds are a blank slate.
a.
Innate
b.
A priori
c.
Tabula rasa
d.
A posteriori
 

13. 

Psychology is sometimes viewed as a merging of
a.
philosophy and monism.
b.
rationalism and physiology.
c.
physiology and empiricism.
d.
philosophy and physiology.
 

14. 

Immanuel Kant
a.
believed in an integration of rationalism and empiricism.
b.
rejected completely all forms of rationalism and empiricism.
c.
believed only in rationalism.
d.
believed only in empiricism.
 

15. 

The goal of structuralism was to understand the "content" of the mind by
a.
synthesizing constituent parts of perceptions.
b.
analyzing perceptions into their constituent parts.
c.
observing responses to various stimuli.
d.
evaluating other schools of thought to provide a "structure" for the new movement.
 

16. 

Wilhelm Wundt's idea of _________ involved looking inward at the contents of one's consciousness.
a.
projection
b.
introversion
c.
repression
d.
introspection
 

17. 

The school of thought that focuses on answering the question of "What do people do, and why do they do it" is called
a.
Gestaltism.
b.
structuralism.
c.
functionalism.
d.
psychoanalysis.
 

18. 

Which of the following is not consistent with the ideas of functionalism?
a.
The study of mental processes
b.
The study and uses of consciousness
c.
The study of the organism independent of its environment
d.
The study of the relationship between the organism and its environment
 

19. 

Pragmatism concerns itself most directly with the
a.
practicality of acquiring knowledge.
b.
degree to which knowledge is empirical.
c.
usefulness of knowledge.
d.
philosophical implications of knowledge.
 

20. 

A leader in guiding functionalism toward pragmatism was __________, whose chief functional contribution to the field of psychology was his landmark book, Principles of Psychology.
a.
John Dewey
b.
William James
c.
Edward Lee Thorndike
d.
Hermann Ebbinghaus
 

21. 

Associationism is a school of psychology, arising from Locke and Aristotle, that examines
a.
how ideas become associated with each other in the mind.
b.
the process by which the thoughts of some people associate with the thoughts of others.
c.
how "nonreal" representative objects become associated with abstract "ideal" objects in the mind.
d.
observable associations between stimuli and responses.
 

22. 

The idea of __________ arose with Hermann Ebbinghaus as a means for fixing mental associations more firmly in the mind and for producing more effective learning.
a.
fixation
b.
rehearsal
c.
satisfaction
d.
classical conditioning
 

23. 

The "law of effect" was proposed by
a.
Hermann Ebbinghaus.
b.
Edward Lee Thorndike.
c.
Ivan Pavlov.
d.
John Dewey.
 

24. 

The "law of effect" states that a stimulus will tend to produce a certain response over time if the
a.
stimulus is conditioned.
b.
organism is repeatedly rewarded for that response.
c.
organism is repeatedly punished for that response.
d.
stimulus and the response are both unconditioned.
 

25. 

The landmark experiment in which dogs salivate at the sight of the person who feeds them provides an example of
a.
classically conditioned learning.
b.
instrumental learning.
c.
social learning.
d.
physiological psychology.
 

26. 

Behaviorism, an extreme version of associationism, deals mainly with
a.
unobservable behavior.
b.
both unobservable and observable behavior.
c.
observable behavior.
d.
animal and plant behavior.
 

27. 

John Watson, the founder of radical behaviorism, was an American psychologist who
a.
rejected all aspects of functionalism.
b.
supported the functionalist movement and was one of its most ardent supporters.
c.
rejected some aspects of functionalism, but at the same time drew heavily from the functionalists.
d.
altered the course of functionalism and later renamed the movement "behaviorism."
 

28. 

Watson's idea of using animals for behavioral research was criticized because some believed that the research with animals could not be __________ to humans.
a.
specified
b.
generalized
c.
conditioned
d.
acquired
 

29. 

Mr. B. F. Skinner, sometimes criticized for making inaccurate generalizations about human behavior, believed that
a.
classical conditioning is much more important for explaining human behavior than is operant conditioning.
b.
human behavior is so different from animal behavior that all data resulting from experiments involving animals is inapplicable to humans.
c.
stimulus-response relationships are completely unreliable in studying human behavior.
d.
all of human behavior, and not only learning, can be explained in terms of behavior emitted in reaction to the environment.
 

30. 

Skinner's argument included the idea of operant conditioning, which refers to his belief that
a.
the strengthening or weakening of behavior, depending upon the presence or absence of reinforcement or punishment, explains all human behavior.
b.
all human behavior can be explained by operant conditioning, involving the strengthening or weakening of behavior, depending only on the presence of punishment.
c.
human behavior is highly unpredictable and, as a result, only some human behavior can be explained in terms of reinforcement-punishment relationships.
d.
human behavior cannot be understood without taking into account the purpose of the behavior.
 

31. 

Which of the following teams proposed that cognitive processes might explain at least some of the effects of classical conditioning?
a.
Wertheimer and Köhler
b.
Bloomfield and Chomsky
c.
Rescorla and Wagner
d.
Watson and McDougall
 

32. 

Which of the following best describes the idea behind Gestalt psychology?
a.
"The sum of the parts is equal to the whole."
b.
"All is part of the whole."
c.
"The whole is nothing more than separate individual parts."
d.
"The whole differs from the sum of its parts."
 

33. 

Gestalt psychology has most greatly influenced, specifically, the study of
a.
emotion.
b.
insight.
c.
behavior.
d.
linguistics.
 

34. 

What is one of many ways in which cognitive performance by computers differs from such performance by humans?
a.
Most computers use parallel processing, whereas humans often use serial processing.
b.
Most computers use serial processing, whereas humans often also use parallel processing.
c.
There are no differences in cognitive ability; only in the way each carries out tasks.
d.
Computers' cognitive abilities are much more complex than human cognitive abilities, and therefore there is no one explanation.
 

35. 

Karl Lashley's work in biological psychology led him to work with which key issue that deals with the location of individual cognitive processes in the brain?
a.
Monistic localization in brain function
b.
Prosopagnosia
c.
The brain as an organizer of behavior
d.
Hysteresis
 

36. 

Donald Hebb is known for his concept of
a.
cell assemblies.
b.
functional autonomy.
c.
the dialectic.
d.
structural localization.
 

37. 

Ecological validity refers to the degree to which lab data hold true when altered to account for
a.
ecological differences between the lab and the outside environment.
b.
the degree to which data gathered in a lab will apply outside the lab, given the influences of the environment on cognitive activity.
c.
the accuracy of predictions of how test subjects will react when placed in an environment with different ecological relationships.
d.
the effect ecological changes have on the behavior of organisms in the particular environment.
 

38. 

The American people are often politically split between the Democratic and the Republican parties. The Democrats are often anti-business, pro-environment, and pro-welfare. The Republicans are often pro-business, anti-environment, and anti-welfare. A group of middle-of-the-road Americans arose, calling themselves independents and picking out what they liked about both parties. This progression is analogous to that proposed by
a.
Plato.
b.
Aristotle.
c.
Hegel.
d.
Locke.
 

39. 

A carpenter constructs chairs every day. However, he believes that his chairs are not "true" chairs. He thinks that there are perfect, abstract ideas of his chairs that exist in an ideal and abstract realm. The chairs he builds out of common wood are merely physical representations of the ideal "chair." The carpenter would most likely support which of the following theories?
a.
Theory of forms
b.
Monism
c.
Dialectical progression
d.
Mind-body dualism
 

40. 

Theresa, a judge, does not accept circumstantial evidence as evidence in her court. Theresa will not convict anyone of a crime, based on general principles of anticipated behavior of people brought to court. Instead, Theresa allows only evidence that she can see, or "hard," observational evidence, to be used in a prosecution. Theresa could be referred to as a(n)
a.
monist.
b.
empiricist.
c.
rationalist.
d.
Platonist.
 

41. 

Kant is a well-known __________ philosopher.
a.
English
b.
Russian
c.
German
d.
American
 

42. 

Dewey was a famous
a.
pragmatist.
b.
structuralist.
c.
functionalist.
d.
recidivist.
 

43. 

Watson was a famous
a.
Platonist.
b.
Freudian.
c.
rationalist.
d.
radical behaviorist.
 

44. 

Joanna, an automobile factory worker, learns how to install a car air conditioner by watching a fellow worker install the part. The knowledge Joanna has just acquired is __________ acquired knowledge.
a.
experimentally
b.
empirically
c.
reductively
d.
innately
 

45. 

Which of the following examples is most analogous to the goal of the structuralist movement?
a.
Scientists study an entire assembled jigsaw puzzle in order to understand each of the pieces.
b.
Scientists look at how the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle fit together in order to understand the assembling process.
c.
Scientists look at each piece of a jigsaw puzzle in order to understand the whole puzzle as assembled.
d.
Scientists study the different ways a jigsaw puzzle can be assembled to form different images.
 

46. 

Bill, a mechanic, believes that automobile research should place an emphasis on studying how the car parts function and the various processes occur among the parts. If Bill had chosen psychology as a career field he might have been in favor of
a.
Gestaltism.
b.
structuralism.
c.
functionalism.
d.
behaviorism.
 

47. 

Of the following types of knowledge, a pragmatist would most likely support the study of knowledge that
a.
exists for its own sake.
b.
can be used to help people become better educated.
c.
enables us to speculate further on the relationship between body and mind.
d.
has no specific use, but is highly interesting from a psychological perspective.
 

48. 

Wilma, a psychologist, is given daily paperwork to complete. She knows that if she completes the work in one hour she is rewarded with a bonus in her paycheck. Wilma consistently works diligently for the bonus. Wilma is demonstrating
a.
the law of effect.
b.
serial processing.
c.
rehearsal.
d.
the theory of forms.
 

49. 

Mike learns about immunizations by responding to a syringe needle going into his arm. However, Mike not only learns by experiencing the syringe himself; he also learns about the pain associated with an immunization by watching other people receive their injections. This second type of learning is an example of __________ learning.
a.
empirical
b.
collective
c.
intuitive
d.
social
 

50. 

Which of the following people supported the rationalist view and largely rejected the pure empirical view?
a.
Kant
b.
Aristotle
c.
Descartes
d.
Locke
 

Essay
 

51. 

Describe the difference between deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning. Give an example of your own to illustrate the difference.
 

52. 

Briefly summarize each of the five antecedents to cognitive psychology; include the paradigms' founders and main tenets or beliefs in your discussion.
 

53. 

Briefly explain the differences in Plato and Aristotle's approaches to acquiring knowledge. Be sure to include the concepts of induction/deduction and rationalism/empiricism.
 

54. 

Contrast the ideas of B. F. Skinner and Albert Bandura. How does each respond to the idea of operant conditioning?
 

55. 

The study of artificial intelligence has led to the discovery that computers and humans have somewhat different thinking processes. Describe the differences.
 

56. 

List three of the different research methods used by psychologists, as mentioned in the chapter, and describe how they differ from one another.
 

57. 

René Descartes and John Locke had differing views of the relationship between mind and body. What is your position? Support your position, using specific references to each of their theories.
 

58. 

Choose one of the research designs addressed in the text and describe it. Then, outline a cognitive-psychological experiment to illustrate your chosen design.
 

59. 

Give an example from your own life in which you were classically conditioned.
 

60. 

Explain how Ebbinghaus's idea of rehearsal aids in learning in a classroom.
 

61. 

How might research that is "basic" in the short run become practical and applied in the long run? Give an example.
 



 
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