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Adult Development and Aging Chapter 1 Test

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

1. 

The field of study that examines the aging process is
a.
psychology.
b.
gerontology.
c.
psychogerontology.
d.
gerontocracy.
 

2. 

Ageism is
a.
a form of discrimination against older adults simply due to their age.
b.
a form of negative stereotype against older adults because of their age.
c.
a form of prejudice against older adults because of their race.
d.
a form of myth about older adults that is highly positive.
 

3. 

A manager of a large department store tries to avoid hiring people over the age of 65 because he believes they cannot handle the strain and take a very long time to learn the job. The belief of the manager is known as
a.
contextualism.
b.
socialization.
c.
ageism.
d.
dysthmia.
 

4. 

The life-span perspective emphasizes an approach that is
a.
unidimensional.
b.
discipline specific.
c.
interdisciplinary.
d.
unidisciplinary.
 

5. 

A key premise of the life-span perspective is that
a.
biological changes are the most important.
b.
events that happen in old age are more important than earlier experiences.
c.
social changes are the most important.
d.
aging is a life long process that begins at conception and ends at death.
 

6. 

Multidirectionality refers to
a.
development and aging involving both decline and growth.
b.
the ability to change and improve abilities over time and with development.
c.
the fact that each of us is affected by a variety of factors both positive and negative.
d.
our differing cultural backgrounds.
 

7. 

Plasticity refers to
a.
development and aging involving both decline and growth.
b.
the ability to change and improve abilities over time and with development.
c.
the fact that each of is affected by a variety of factors both positive and negative.
d.
our differing cultural backgrounds.
 

8. 

Multiple causation refers to
a.
development and aging involving both decline and growth.
b.
the ability to change and improve abilities over time and with development.
c.
the fact that each of is affected by a variety of factors both positive and negative.
d.
our differing cultural backgrounds.
 

9. 

Which of the following statements is true of the population over the age of 65?
a.
The fastest growing segment of the entire U.S. population is the over-85 group.
b.
There are more men then women in all segments of elderly population.
c.
There are fewer Baby Boomers over the age of 65.
d.
The average age of this group is getting lower.
 

10. 

Development is shaped by four forces. Which one of the following is not a developmental force?
a.
life-cycle
b.
psychological
c.
biological
d.
histological
 

11. 

Which of the following is an example of normative age-graded influences on development?
a.
when one's first marriage occurs
b.
being a member of the Depression generation
c.
winning the lottery
d.
contracting AIDS
 

12. 

The death of a spouse at age 80 is an example of a
a.
normative age-graded event.
b.
normative history-graded event.
c.
normative individual-graded event.
d.
nonnormative event.
 

13. 

The "sexual revolution" in the 1960s is an example of a
a.
normative age-graded event.
b.
normative history-graded event.
c.
normative individual-graded event.
d.
nonnormative event.
 

14. 

The death of a spouse at age 25 is an example of a
a.
normative age-graded event.
b.
normative history-graded event.
c.
normative individual-graded event.
d.
nonnormative event.
 

15. 

Which of the following is a nonnormative influence on behavior?
a.
when one's first marriage occurs
b.
being a "baby boomer"
c.
having a child
d.
winning the lottery
 

16. 

"You are a product of your environment" is an example of a position on which of the following controversies?
a.
continuity-discontinuity
b.
qualitative-quantitative
c.
longitudinal-sequential
d.
nature-nurture
 

17. 

The belief in inevitable decline in intelligence as people grow older is representative of a
a.
nature position.
b.
nurture position.
c.
qualitative change position.
d.
quantitative change position.
 

18. 

An interpretation of age differences in intelligence that emphasizes a "rusty skills" approach is an example of a
a.
nature position.
b.
nurture position.
c.
qualitative change position.
d.
quantitative change position.
 

19. 

The idea that development in later life builds upon changes that happened earlier in development is known as the controversy
a.
nature-nurture
b.
stability-change
c.
continuity-discontinuity
d.
universal versus context-specific
 

20. 

Examining whether the same rules that describe behavior at one point in time can be used to describe it at another time is what is meant by the
a.
continuity-discontinuity controversy.
b.
nature-nurture controversy.
c.
universal versus context-specific controversy.
d.
formist-contextualist controversy.
 

21. 

A quantitative change always involves a change in
a.
amount.
b.
kind.
c.
how.
d.
when.
 

22. 

A qualitative change always involves a change in
a.
amount.
b.
kind.
c.
when.
d.
who.
 

23. 

Understanding the cultural and ethnic differences between African American and European American family structures, relies on which controversy?
a.
nature-nurture
b.
continuity-discontinuity
c.
mechanistic-organismic
d.
universal versus context-specific
 

24. 

Normal, disease-free movement across adulthood is termed
a.
primary aging.
b.
secondary aging.
c.
tertiary aging.
d.
holistic aging.
 

25. 

Developmental change in adulthood that is related to disease is termed
a.
primary aging.
b.
secondary aging.
c.
tertiary aging.
d.
holistic aging.
 

26. 

Loss of memory from Alzheimer's disease is a good example of
a.
primary aging.
b.
secondary aging.
c.
tertiary aging.
d.
holistic aging.
 

27. 

__________ involves a rapid loss that occurs just before death.
a.
Primary aging
b.
Secondary aging
c.
Tertiary aging
d.
Holistic aging
 

28. 

Bill Smith experienced a rapid loss of his ability to function shortly before his death at age 79. Mr. Smith's developmental change is an example of
a.
primary aging.
b.
secondary aging.
c.
tertiary aging.
d.
holistic aging.
 

29. 

Which of the following is the poorest definition of age from a developmental perspective?
a.
biological age
b.
chronological age
c.
sociocultural age
d.
psychological age
 

30. 

Mary is 60 years old, drives a Corvette, and has a teenage daughter. She would be considered to have a young
a.
biological age.
b.
chronological age.
c.
sociocultural age.
d.
psychological age.
 

31. 

The index of age that represents a person's intellectual, memory, or learning ability function is called
a.
biological age.
b.
chronological age.
c.
sociocultural age.
d.
psychological age.
 

32. 

In terms of psychological age, which of the following people is the youngest?
a.
Michelle, a college graduate at age 17
b.
Anne, a secretary at age 25
c.
Sarah, a school teacher at age 55
d.
Cathy, a college sophomore at age 48
 

33. 

The degree to which a questionnaire measures a construct consistently is its
a.
representativeness.
b.
utility index.
c.
validity.
d.
reliability.
 

34. 

The degree to which a questionnaire measures what it is supposed to measure is its
a.
representativeness.
b.
utility index.
c.
validity.
d.
reliability.
 

35. 

Observational studies
a.
manipulate variables in a lab setting.
b.
manipulate variables in a natural setting.
c.
can make cause-effect inferences.
d.
are systematic investigations of behavior in everyday situations.
 

36. 

Systematic observations differ from naturalistic observations in that they
a.
manipulate variables to see cause and effect relationships.
b.
create a situation that is likely to elicit the behavior of choice.
c.
sample behaviors of interest in everyday situations.
d.
systematic observations are more valid.
 

37. 

__________ provide a standardized environment that gives every person an opportunity to display the desired behavior.
a.
Case studies
b.
Self-reports
c.
Naturalistic observations
d.
Structured observations
 

38. 

Questionnaires and interviews are examples of techniques.
a.
observational
b.
correlational
c.
sampling
d.
self-report
 

39. 

In a study on memory in adults, college students from psychology courses are examined. The college students represent a
a.
population of people.
b.
sample of people.
c.
independent variable.
d.
dependent variable.
 

40. 

Most studies in adult development and aging research have been conducted on middle-class, European Americans. This group of people represent the of the study.
a.
population
b.
sample
c.
independent variable
d.
index variable
 

41. 

Manipulation is a fundamental component of
a.
correlational techniques.
b.
naturalistic inquiry.
c.
observation.
d.
experimentation.
 

42. 

Which variables are manipulated by the researcher in an experiment?
a.
dependent variables
b.
independent variables
c.
co-dependent variables
d.
latent variable
 

43. 

The outcome variable in an experiment is a
a.
dependent variable.
b.
independent variable.
c.
co-dependent variable.
d.
latent variable.
 

44. 

Which of the following cannot be an independent variable?
a.
drug dosage
b.
anxiety
c.
amount of sleep
d.
age
 

45. 

The reason that most research on development is not truly experimental is due to the fact that
a.
age cannot be measured accurately in most people.
b.
most statistics cannot handle age as a variable.
c.
age cannot be manipulated therefore it cannot be an independent variable.
d.
it is hard to collect large enough samples to represent different age groups.
 

46. 

A study that focuses on the description of the relationship between cognitive development and personality development is an example of
a.
naturalistic inquiry.
b.
observation.
c.
experimentation.
d.
correlational techniques.
 

47. 

Which of the following issues cannot be examined in a correlational study?
a.
causation
b.
description
c.
strength of relationships
d.
presence of relationships
 

48. 

Even if age is positively correlated with speed of processing, we cannot conclude that age "caused" this increase because
a.
response speed is not usually affected by age.
b.
age normally causes a decrease in speed.
c.
only experimental studies can demonstrate cause and effect relationships.
d.
only correlational studies can demonstrate cause and effect relationships.
 

49. 

Correlational studies
a.
are effective with variables that can't be manipulated.
b.
provide important information about the strength of relationships between variables.
c.
can't provide information concerning causation.
d.
all of the above.
 

50. 

A girl beginning puberty around 12 years old is an example of a(n)
a.
age effect.
b.
time-of-measurement effect.
c.
practice effect.
d.
cohort effect.
 

51. 

In research the term used to refer to a group of people who experienced the same event or were born during the same time period is called a(n)
a.
age effect.
b.
time-of-measurement effect.
c.
practice effect.
d.
cohort effect.
 

52. 

Being at Florida State during a National Championship season was an event experienced by a group of people. This is an example of a(n)
a.
age effect
b.
time-of-measurement effect
c.
practice effect
d.
cohort effect
 

53. 

Testing people’s fear of flying shortly following a major airplane crash might produce a(n)
a.
age effect.
b.
time-of-measurement effect.
c.
practice effect.
d.
cohort effect.
 

54. 

In a __________ design, groups of participants varying in age are studied at one point in time.
a.
cross-sectional
b.
longitudinal
c.
cross-sequential
d.
longitudinal-sequential
 

55. 

Dr. Geri Atrics wants to survey people 21 and 90 years old to get their opinions concerning financial aid to college students. Which research design is Dr. Atrics most likely to use?
a.
cross-sectional
b.
longitudinal
c.
time-lag
d.
sequential
 

56. 

Which of the following is not a characteristic of cross-sectional research?
a.
multiple age groups
b.
multiple cohorts
c.
repeated observations
d.
single time-of-measurement
 

57. 

Which two effects are confounded in cross-sectional research?
a.
age and cohort
b.
age and time-of-measurement
c.
cohort and time-of-measurement
d.
cohort and practice
 

58. 

You just saw a story on the news that reported older women's IQ drops dramatically after the age of 60. This result was concluded from comparisons of women born in 1910-1930 and women born between 1960-1980. Based on this information, the criticism you would be likely to make would be that
a.
this is not a valid result because men were not included.
b.
longitudinal research doesn't work well when looking at IQ data.
c.
cohort effects are likely to account for the differences.
d.
whoever conducted this study doesn't like older women.
 

59. 

In a __________ design, one group of participants is studied repeatedly over a period of time.
a.
cross-sectional
b.
longitudinal
c.
cross-sequential
d.
longitudinal-sequential
 

60. 

Dr. Dee Vellop wants to know what will happen to the 1990 class of gerontology graduates during the decade following their graduation. Which research design will Dr. Vellop be most likely to use?
a.
cross-sectional
b.
longitudinal
c.
time-lag
d.
sequential
 

61. 

A researcher decides to investigate whether there are any changes in people's IQ scores from early adulthood through late adulthood. The researcher (and others) begins with a sample of 21-year-olds and plans to follow this group until they are 80 years old. The type of research design she is planning to employ is called
a.
cross-sectional.
b.
longitudinal.
c.
time-lag.
d.
sequential.
 

62. 

Age changes are studied most effectively using a __________ design.
a.
cross-sectional
b.
longitudinal
c.
time-lag
d.
sequential
 

63. 

Which two effects are confounded in longitudinal research?
a.
age and cohort
b.
age and time-of-measurement
c.
cohort and time-of-measurement
d.
cohort and practice
 

64. 

Practice effects are a major problem with __________.
a.
cross-sectional designs
b.
longitudinal designs
c.
time-lag designs
d.
sequential designs
 

65. 

If participants at the end of a longitudinal study tend to be those who were initially higher on some variable, we have a case of
a.
negative selective survival.
b.
positive selective survival.
c.
elective selective survival.
d.
equally selective survival.
 

66. 

If the surviving participants in the last wave of testing in a longitudinal study on health and aging were those who initially had the lowest blood pressures, then we have a case of
a.
negative selective survival.
b.
positive selective survival.
c.
elective selective survival.
d.
equally selective survival.
 

67. 

Dr. Geri Atrics wants to survey several cohorts of people 21 years old to get their opinions concerning financial aid to college students. Which research design is Dr. Atrics most likely to use?
a.
cross-sequential
b.
longitudinal-sequential
c.
time-lag
d.
cross-sectional
 

68. 

Cohort and time-of-measurement are confounded in
a.
cross-sectional designs.
b.
longitudinal designs.
c.
time-lag designs.
d.
sequential designs.
 

69. 

A __________ design combines two or more cross-sectional designs.
a.
cross-sequential
b.
longitudinal
c.
cross-sectional
d.
longitudinal sequential
 

70. 

Dr. Dee Vellop wants to know what will happen to the 1990, 1991, and 1992 classes of gerontology graduates during the decade following their graduation. Which research design will Dr. Vellop be most likely to use?
a.
cross-sequential
b.
longitudinal
c.
time-lag
d.
longitudinal-sequential
 

71. 

An example of a longitudinal sequential design would be
a.
measuring two cohorts of people over time.
b.
measuring several cross-sections of people once.
c.
measuring multiple groups of same-aged people.
d.
measuring one group of people over time.
 

72. 

In this type of sequential design, cohort and time of measurement effects are examined.
a.
cross-sequential
b.
time-sequential
c.
time-lag sequential
d.
longitudinal-sequential
 

73. 

A very commonly used design in adult development and aging research is the extreme age design ("young" v. "old"). Which of the following is a limitation of this type of study?
a.
the samples are not representative and may not generalize
b.
the measures may not mean the same thing across age groups and may not be valid
c.
age is not treated as a continuous variable
d.
all of the above
 

74. 

Dr. Youngold compares a group of "young adults" from an introductory psychology course to a group of "older adults" from a local retirement center on a measure of word fluency. This type of design is known as
a.
cross sectional.
b.
cross-sequential.
c.
extreme age.
d.
longitudinal.
 

75. 

The procedures used in research to ensure the participants are treated fairly are known as
a.
ethical principles.
b.
psychological principles.
c.
psychometrics.
d.
debriefing
 

Essay
 

76. 

Describe the correspondence between ageism and stereotypes of aging. Make sure that your response includes a definition and an example of each term.
 

77. 

What are the four characteristics of Baltes' Life-span perspective?
 

78. 

Describe why adult development and aging is often examined from a multidisciplinary perspective.
 

79. 

How will changes in the age distribution of the United States population affect society? Please provide examples.
 

80. 

Discuss how the interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces through life-cycle forces shape a person's development.
 

81. 

Define and provide an example of a normative age-graded event, a normative history-graded event, and a nonnormative event.
 

82. 

What is the stability-change controversy? How does this relate to the continuity-discontinuity controversy?
 

83. 

What is the universal versus context-specific controversy and how does it relate to sociocultural forces?
 

84. 

How can you define age? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each?
 

85. 

Analyze each of the four major controversies in development in terms of the four developmental forces.
 

86. 

Describe primary, secondary, and tertiary aging giving examples of each.
 

87. 

What are advantages and disadvantages of experimental and correlational studies?
 

88. 

Identify and define the basic developmental research designs.
 

89. 

Differentiate among age, cohort, and time-of-measurement effects. How and why are these important for developmental research?
 

90. 

Design a study on a topic of interest to you using longitudinal and cross-sectional designs. Describe the information you can gain and the potential problems you would have with each of these designs.
 

91. 

If you read in the newspaper that your favorite snack food was associated with cancer, what information would you want to know in order to decide whether or not to give up your snack food?
 

92. 

Why is the extreme age group design used so frequently in adult development and aging research? What are the limitations of this design?
 

93. 

When conducting research, what ethical considerations should be taken into account?
 

94. 

Why is it important to study adult development and aging?
 

95. 

Describe the special concerns about conducting research with adults.
 

Completion
Complete each sentence or statement.
 

96. 

__________ is the study of aging from young adulthood through old age.
 

 

97. 

Discrimination against older people is called __________.
 

 

98. 

Development is said to be __________ when there is more than one path to successful aging.
 

 

99. 

Events are said to be __________ if they are important to the individual but do not happen to most people.
 

 

100. 

An internal set of developmental milestones used to mark one's progression through life is known as a(n) __________.
 

 

101. 

__________ aging refers to normal, disease-free development in adulthood.
 

 

102. 

A(n) __________ is a variable which is used to represent the complex interrelated influences on people over time, such as chronological age.
 

 

103. 

Intelligence and memory abilities are examples of your __________ age.
 

 

104. 

__________ refers to a measure measuring what it is supposed to measure.
 

 

105. 

A(n) __________ group is any collection of people having some common experience.
 

 

106. 

When one cannot determine which of two or more effects is responsible for the observed behavior it is said to be __________.
 

 

107. 

When a person is asked to write down their responses to a set of questions this is called a(n) __________.
 

 

108. 

In a(n) __________ study a single person is examined in great detail.
 

 

109. 

When participants begin but do not finish a longitudinal task, there may be a problem with __________.
 

 

110. 

__________ involves gaining permission from the participant before collecting data and telling the participant about any potential risks and benefits.
 

 



 
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